Information for Contributors
This journal, and more detailed information about it, can be found at http://prb.aps.org/. Prospective authors are particularly advised to consult the information accessible via the Submit a Manuscript subpages. Those looking for a specific known file may find it more convenient to consult the alphabetical listing via the Frequently Used Memos link on the Information for Authors subpage, in the Authors, General Information section.
Manuscripts must be submitted electronically (via direct Web upload or via e-print servers). Interactive submission forms are an integral part of the submission process. These forms aid authors in supplying all the information needed in a structured format which furthers efficient processing; they also provide a location for additional "free form" information.
Please specify the author to whom correspondence should be addressed, and give all available communications information for this individual (postal and email addresses, phone and fax numbers), since in various circumstances they may all be useful. Please specify journal and section to which the paper is submitted, and give PACS (Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme®) index categories if possible. The scheme is available at http://publish.aps.org/PACS/. If an important subject of your paper cannot be appropriately classified in the PACS scheme, please give an appropriate keyword or phrase, and indicate approximately where in the scheme this topic would be best placed.
Authors of manuscripts that have been sent for external review are directed, via email, to an online, interactive service that guides the completion of the 'publication rights' agreement(s), such as the APS Transfer of Copyright agreement, appropriate to their work. While such agreements take effect only upon acceptance of the manuscript for publication in an APS journal, the prompt completion of this process can prevent unnecessary delays; accepted manuscripts will not be forwarded to production until APS is in receipt of the agreement(s) associated with them.
For detailed information about electronic submissions, see http://authors.aps.org/Submissions/. Properly prepared electronic submissions are exempt from publication charges. Those that use APS macro packages may qualify for the compuscript production program, under which author-supplied files are converted directly to production format and coding, rather than being rekeyed for publication. Receipt of an electronic submission will be acknowledged by email within 24 hours. Figures for an electronic submission must be received in at least review-quality form before editorial processing can begin. Refer to the online documentation for more detailed instructions.
When a manuscript is resubmitted, please include a summary of changes made and a brief response to all recommendations and criticisms. The interactive resubmission forms available on our Web server may be used for transmission of modified manuscripts and figures. These forms should also be used when a manuscript previously submitted to one APS journal is resubmitted to another. Send the complete file for the text if there have been any changes. Please refer to the online documentation for more detailed instructions. For any resubmission, please state whether or not the figures have been modified, and supply new electronic figures if there have been such changes. It is only necessary to resend the "original" figures if the previous versions are no longer valid. Please update any other information (e.g., address and communication information) that has changed or will change since initial submission.
For general format and style consult recent issues of this journal and the Physical Review Style and Notation Guide at https://publish.aps.org/files/styleguide-pr.pdf. Additional style guidelines can be found in the Fourth Edition of the AIP Style Manual, available at http://www.aip.org/pubservs/style.html.
The title should be concise but informative enough to facilitate information retrieval. The abstract should be self-contained (contain no footnotes). It should be adequate as an index (giving all subjects, major and minor, about which new information is given) and as a summary (giving the conclusions and all results of general interest in the article). It should be about 5% of the length of the article, but less than 500 words.
Notation should be clear, compact, and consistent with standard usage. Equations should be neatly formatted, punctuated, and aligned to bring out their structure, and numbered on the right. (a) Diacritical marks (tildes, etc.) can be put over any symbol, including indices. (b) Three-vectors are generally set in roman boldface type. More general vectors, matrices, etc., are usually set in lightface italic type, although boldface may alternatively be used. (c) Be careful when using the solidus (/) in fractions. For example, 1/2a means 1/(2a), not (1/2)a. Use appropriate bracketing if needed to ensure clarity.
References and footnotes to text material must be combined in a single list, numbered consecutively in their order of first appearance in the paper. References within tables should be designated by lower-case letter superscripts and given at the end of the table.
For the proper form for references, see the Physical Review Style and Notation Guide (especially Table I and the list of Journal Title Abbreviations). The names of all authors of cited papers should normally be given except when the number of authors is very large (say, more than 10). When reference is made to material not available in the published literature, it is denoted as "unpublished." References to papers published in peer-reviewed journals are considered primary references. References to e-print archives should not be used in place of primary references. References to classified reports or other documents with restricted circulation should be avoided. It is important to confirm the accuracy of bibliographic information in references. Hyperlinks will be programmed to enable readers to "click" on references and jump directly to the material cited. If your reference citations are incorrect or incomplete (e.g., missing author name, or an incorrect volume number or page), the associated hyperlinks may fail, and the usefulness of your paper in the online environment may be diminished. Since at the present time such links work only from the reference section, work cited anywhere in the paper, including in figure and table captions and in "Note(s) added," should be included in the reference section.
Footnotes to an author's name or address are intended to facilitate locating or communicating with an author. In many cases, it can be helpful to identify an author as "spokesperson" or "author to whom correspondence should be addressed." Footnotes giving email addresses of one or more corresponding authors are strongly encouraged. All information concerning research support should appear in the acknowledgments. Footnotes which describe an author's position or title are not acceptable.
Separate tables (numbered in the order of their first appearance) should be used for all but the simplest tabular material; they must have captions, which should make the tables intelligible without reference to the text. The structure should be clear, with simple column headings giving all units.
The decision on whether results should be published in long tables depends on the precision of the data, i.e., whether they can be read accurately enough from a figure, and on how many readers are likely to use the numbers relative to the space needed in the journal. Material more extensive than is appropriate for the journal article, or of special types (e.g., multimedia, program files) may be deposited as Supplemental Material; information regarding Supplemental Material is available on our Web server. If additional numerical data can be obtained from a data center, from the author, or from another source, indicate how and in what format they can be obtained.
Figures should be planned for the column width (8.6 cm or 3 3/8 in.) of the journal. If the detail shown requires it, 1.5 or 2 columns may be used. Authors are encouraged to submit all figures electronically; refer to the online instructions for more details. All figures must be prepared so that the details can be seen after reproduction. They must have a clear background and unbroken lines with as much black- white contrast as possible. The symbol width and lettering height on the journal page should be at least 2 mm. Avoid small open symbols that tend to fill in, small dots and decimal points, and shading or cross-hatching that is not coarse enough to withstand reproduction. Curves should be smooth; curves and lines should have consistent line widths of sufficient weight [final weight of at least 0.18 mm (0.5 point)]. The resolution of the drawing software and output device should be set as high as possible (preferably 600 dpi or higher).
Figures should be numbered in the order in which they are referred to in the text. Each figure must have a caption that makes the figure intelligible without reference to the text. Text should be placed in the caption, not on the figure. Groups of figures that share a (single) caption must be labeled "(a), (b)," etc. The figure itself should have properly labeled axes with correctly abbreviated units enclosed in parentheses. Use consistent lettering and style as in the body of the text (use correct capitalization, unslashed zeros, proper exponential notation, superscripts and subscripts, decimal points instead of commas, etc.). Use the form R (10³ Ω), not R×10³ Ω. Use half spacing within compound units, not hyphens or periods. Avoid ambiguous usage of the solidus ("/"), e.g., (mb/MeV sr), not (mb/MeV/sr). When possible, integer numbers should be used on the axis scales of figures, e.g., 1, 2, 3, or 0, 5, 10, not 1.58, 3.16, 4.75. Decimal points must be on the line (not above it); do not use commas instead. Use the same number of digits to the right of the decimal point for all numbers on the axis scales. A number must be both before and behind the decimal point, e.g., 0.2, not .2. For complete instructions see the Physical Review Style and Notation Guide or the AIP Style Manual.
Photographic images (either grayscale or color) should be submitted electronically as high-resolution JPEG or PNG files.
In preparing figures, care should be taken to present the scientific results accurately. If images used in any of the figures have been manipulated, except for adjustments that affect the picture as a whole (e.g., overall brightness), the modification should be described clearly in the caption or text.
If color is desired in the print version of the journal as well as in the online version, the author must clearly indicate which figures are intended to be printed in color as part of the submission process. Information about our pricing and payment policy for color figures in the print journal can be found at http://publish.aps.org/authors/color-figures-print.
In order to reproduce figures, tables, etc., from another journal, authors must show that they have complied with the requirements of the publisher of the other journal, possibly including written agreement of both publisher and author of the originally published work. (If the original journal is published by APS, only the written agreement of the original author is required to reproduce a few figures or tables.)